This Festschrift is a tribute to an eminent scholar, scientist and engineer, Professor Richard Kounai Chang, on his retirement from Yale University on June 12, 2008. During approximately half of a century of scientific and technological exploration, Professor Chang contributed to the development of linear and nonlinear optics, novel photonic light localization devices, surface second harmonic generation, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and novel optical methods for detecting airborne aerosol pathogens. This volume contains a collection of articles contributed by former students, collaborators, and colleagues of Professor Chang, who are leaders in academia, national laboratories and industrial research all over the world. The topics cover important optical science and technology areas including linear and nonlinear spectroscopy, linear and nonlinear optics in microparticles, linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of bioaerosols, optical microcavities and nanostructures, and photoscapes or multidisciplinary applications.
Knowledge of production cross sections for radionuclides and medium energies (10 MeV to 100 GeV) of the incident particles gains more and more importance, not only for nuclear physics, but also for applications in astrophysics, radiation protection, medicine, industry, etc. In the present subvolume production cross sections of radioisotopes by medium energetic alpha-particles are presented in tables and figures for targets from strontium to californium. The origin of the authors made it possible to include data from Russia and other Eastern European countries which sometimes are not easy to access. The tables and figures should represent the most complete compilation for this type of nuclear reaction.
This important volume contains selected papers and extensive commentaries on laser trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using radiation pressure forces. Such techniques apply to a variety of small particles, such as atoms, molecules, macroscopic dielectric particles, living cells, and organelles within cells. These optical methods have had a revolutionary impact on the fields of atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, and many aspects of nanotechnology.In atomic physics, the trapping and cooling of atoms down to nanokelvins and even picokelvin temperatures are possible. These are the lowest temperatures in the universe. This made possible the first demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic and molecular vapors. Some of the applications are high precision atomic clocks, gyroscopes, the measurement of gravity, cryptology, atomic computers, cavity quantum electrodynamics and coherent atom lasers.A major application in biophysics is the study of the mechanical properties of the many types of motor molecules, mechanoenzymes, and other macromolecules responsible for the motion of organelles within cells and the locomotion of entire cells. Unique in vitro and in vivo assays study the driving forces, stepping motion, kinetics, and efficiency of these motors as they move along the cell's cytoskeleton. Positional and temporal resolutions have been achieved, making possible the study of RNA and DNA polymerases, as they undergo their various copying, backtracking, and error correcting functions on a single base pair basis.Many applications in nanotechnology involve particle and cell sorting, particle rotation, microfabrication of simple machines, microfluidics, and other micrometer devices. The number of applications continues to grow at a rapid rate.The author is the discoverer of optical trapping and optical tweezers. With his colleagues, he first demonstrated optical levitation, the trapping of atoms, and tweezer trapping and manipulation of living cells and biological particles.This is the only review volume covering the many fields of optical trapping and manipulation. The intention is to provide a selective guide to the literature and to teach how optical traps really work.
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